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聯合國最新活動:「2015:全球行動年」

2015年3月

 

2015年1月,聯合國發起一項新的活動,名為「2015:全球行動年」,呼籲全球領袖於2015年共同推動可持續發展。

這個活動旨在調動全球支持,針對一系列影響人類生活的重要問題採取行動,包括制定宏大的議程推動可持續發展、開發可持續籌資新管道以及在2015年達成氣候協定。聯合國邀請全球首腦推動經濟、環境和社會轉變,為人民生活帶來積極實在影響,確保世界和平穩定。

活動敦請各國履行千年發展目標的承諾,共同推行2015年後發展議程中的可持續發展目標,加大財政支援為我們期望的未來籌資,和承諾遏制氣候變化問題。同時,透過鼓勵各國領袖和人民共同制定新方案,改善人們的生活,一起消滅貧窮和不平等,保護我們的地球。

聯合國亦舉行了「我的世界」調查,並邀請所有人一起投票,在16個議題中選出6個對自身個人及家人最重要的議題,為未來的發展議程提供重要數據。2014年12月發表的《我們人類》報告已經為是次調查初步歸納數據。來自194個國家超過700萬人,選出了就業、醫療和教育為首三位能夠使世界更美好的優先事項。這項調查將會繼續收集數據,直至2015年9月通過最新的聯合國可持續發展議程為止。

「2015:全球行動年」網頁:
http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/zh
聯合國「我的世界」調查:
http://www.myworld2015.org/?lang=ch
《我們人類》報告 (英文版) :

http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_330319.pdf
 
 

世界就業和社會概況:2015趨勢

2015年3月

 

在2015年1月出版《世界就業和社會概況:2015趨勢》中,國際勞工組織指出因為持續的不平等、工資下跌等原因,預測全球失業情況將會繼續惡化。雖然在一些發達經濟體系就業情況正在改善,但新興和發展中地區就業情況卻在惡化。

未來5 年持續惡化的全球就業情況無法消除顯著的就業和社會差距。全球失業率將會繼續上升,而自2008年全球危機開始用來計算失去工作崗位數量的全球就業差距將會不斷擴大。雖然發達經濟體系的就業正在復蘇,歐洲的就業情況仍然困難。部分中等收入和發展中地區,因為無法改善低度就業、非正規就業和弱勢就業等情況,令就業問題更加嚴重。青年人,尤其是年輕婦女,繼續不成比例的受失業影響。高收入下不平等狀況改善緩慢,以及職業技能需求的變化,塑造了現時的全球就業模式,並使不平等的情況更加嚴峻,導致社會更加不穩定。

報告建議通過完善的就業、收入企業和社會政策加強支援聚集起來的需求和企業投資。透過優化勞動市場和稅務政策改善日趨嚴重的不平等狀況。具包容性的勞動市場改革可以支援人們投身工作,提升工作質素和技能。

《世界就業和社會概況:2015趨勢》報告 (英文版):
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_337069.pdf
全球失業數據
http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/multimedia/maps-and-charts/WCMS_336950/lang--en/index.htm

 
 

亞太經社會仁川策略殘疾指標指南

2015年3月

 

亞洲及太平洋經濟社會委員會於2014年12月提出了《亞太經社會仁川策略殘疾指標指南》,成為亞太區內第一套傷健共融發展目標,支持並促進區內以至全球政策制定者、民間社會和學術界攜手,共同收集更可靠和具可比性的殘疾數據,並設計具響應性、有效和實證為本的政策,改善殘疾人士的生活。

2012年,亞太經社會成員國家通過仁川「讓權利變成現實」亞太區殘疾人士策略,並宣佈推行2013-2022亞太區殘疾十年計劃,落實執行仁川策略。策略設定了27個目標和62個的指標,以監督和檢討10個仁川策略目標。這本指南進一步闡述了殘疾的定義,和如何分類和衡量殘疾狀況的方法。指南除了討論界定殘疾人士背後的不同目的,簡介環境障礙的測量方法,亦為62個指標的定義和量度方法提供指引,並為可能數據資料來源提供建議。

為了有效監察目標履行進展,指南亦促請成員國為數據收集設定優先次序,呼籲各國改善殘疾數據的可靠性和可比性,致力建立可靠的統計資料。

《亞太經社會仁川策略殘疾指標指南》(英文版):

http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/ESCAP%20Guide%20on%20Disability%20Indicators.pdf
 
 

亞太地區社會發展狀況

2015年3月

 

在2015年1月的統計簡報提出了多個亞太地區社會發展進程中的社會問題和政策方面的挑戰。

因為良好的生育保健服務、初級避孕,及女姓延遲首次結婚等因素,亞太區許多國家在人口議題上正處於向低生育率和低死亡率過渡的中晚期階段,並導致區內人口年齡架構出現變化。現時高百分比、具經濟生產能力的15 到 64 歲年齡組別正可推動經濟加速和長期增長,但當人口結構變化持續下去,亦會為經濟帶來挑戰。

亞太區仍然繼續城市化發展進程,部分原因是發展中國家的就業市場轉變,更多人尋求非農業工作。城市化步伐受不同因素影響,特別是人民收入水平。高薪酬水平的經濟體系城市化步伐更快,反之亦然。城市化為國家帶來好處,讓一些關鍵服務更多符合成本效益,包括運輸、醫療和教育。然而,急速的城市化發展亦為規劃帶來挑戰,包括城市的貧窮人口和貧民窟。儘管急速的城市化發展和不平等現象為亞太地區帶來重大挑戰,區內的暴力犯罪率(例如兇殺案)是全球最低的,無論在已發展或發展中國家,兇殺率一直持續下跌。

統計簡報亦提出了政府處理綜合行政數據的重要性,可以更有效的回應具關聯性的議題,為政策制定者提供及時、具有成本效益和詳細的資訊。不過,當中還有許多挑戰和障礙需要克服,包括法律上對統計資料和數據的保護,如何建立公眾信任,以及防止統計資料意外披露等。
 

2014 Joint World Conference on Social Work, Education and Social Development (只提供英文版)

March 2014

 

The three main international organizations representing social policy and social work including International Council of Social Welfare (ICSW), International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW), and International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) will gather again in Melbourne, Australia for the Joint World Conference on Social Work, Education and Social Development from 9-12 July 2014.

Following the successful Joint World Conferences held in Hong Kong and Stockholm in 2010 and 2012, the 2014 Joint World Conference will again bring together practitioners, researchers and educators from around the world who are engaged in Social Work and Social Development to continue the work of the Global Agenda discussed in the previous Joint World Conferences, as well as to promote new conversations that transcend our specific fields and methods of practice through global collective engagement in social work and social development. It will create synergies among professionals from different parts of the world to develop a sustainable welfare system for the future.

Registration to the Conference is opened. Early bird registration will be ended on 2 May 2014. Further information about the conference, and programme schedule can be found in the conference website: http://www.swsd2014.org/. For questions regarding registration, hotel booking, social events, and general information please contact Waldronsmith Management at swsd2014@wsm.com.au.

 

 

Global Coalition for Social Protection Floors (只提供英文版)

March 2014

 

More than 70 civil society and trade union organizations which are dedicated to promote social protection floors as key instruments to achieve the overarching social goal of the global development agenda have joined hands and formed the Global Coalition for Social Protection Floors in January 2014, for a social protection goal to be included in the post 2015 Development agenda.

The Global Coalition recognizes that social protection can be instrumental in preventing poverty and correcting its consequences at all levels of income. It can also be instrumental in addressing some of the systemic root causes of poverty, but cannot do so in isolation. It holds that the two-dimensional strategy of the ILO Recommendation No.202 concerning National Floors for Social Protection, extending basic social security guarantees to all and ensuring improved quality of protection be adopted as a guide in developing an overarching social protection goal for social development in the framework of the post-2015 development agenda. The protection should be universal to all people residing in a country to social security, regardless of documentation.

A Social Protection Floor (SPF) is the first level of a comprehensive national social protection system. The SPF concept was adopted in April 2009 as one of nine joint initiatives to respond to the global financial and economic crisis of 2008. It is a global social policy approach promoting integrated strategies for ensuring access to essential social services and income security for all. SPF adopts country-led approaches, based on existing framework of country needs, structures, objectives, dynamics, and priorities. It is comprised of universal access to essential services, such as health, education, housing, water and sanitation and other services, as nationally defined, as well as social transfers in cash or in kind, to ensure income security, food security, adequate nutrition, and access to essential services.

 

 

WHO launched a new platform MiNDbank to promote health and human rights (只提供英文版)

March 2014

 

World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new online platform MiNDbank on Human Rights Day on 10 December 2013 which presenting a wealth of information about mental health, substance abuse, disability, human rights and the different policies, strategies, laws and service standards being implemented in different countries. The platform also serves as a part of WHO’s QualityRights initiative, aiming to end human rights violations against people with mental health conditions.

MiNDbank contains key international documents and information, including easy and free access to the following resources:

    1. National mental health policies, strategies and laws
    2. National substance abuse policies, strategies and laws
    3. National disability related policies, strategies and laws
    4. National general health policies, strategies and laws
    5. National constitutions, human rights and child rights laws
    6. National poverty reduction and development strategies
    7. Health and mental health service standards
    8. International and regional human rights conventions and treaties
    9. CRPD Member States reports, Shadow Reports and Concluding Observations
    10. UN Special Rapporteurs reports
    11. Key World Health Organization and United Nations reports
    12. UN and WHO resolutions

Visitors can tap into relevant health information of WHO Member States and other partners in the platform. They can review policies, laws and strategies and search for best practices and success stories in the field of mental health. The platform will also facilitate debate, dialogue, advocacy and research on mental health, to improve care and to promote human rights across the globe.

MiNDbank website: http://www.mindbank.info/

 

 

UNESCAP launched the Social Protection Toolbox (只提供英文版)

March 2014

 

Developed under a UN project on Strengthening Social Protection, UNESCAP has launched the Social Protection Toolbox - an online platform that provides a database of good practices and a network of social protection experts to support the policymakers and stakeholders for moving toward broader and more robust social protection systems, and to cover existing gaps in the promotion and analysis of social protection.

The Toolbox is structured around three modules: “Explore”, “Navigate” and “Engage”. “Explore” is centered on an interactive multimedia presentation which encourages users to “explore” various aspects of social protection; “Navigate” provides users with access to two separate databases, good practices and network of experts, both accessible through an easy-to-navigate and interactive mapping utility; “Engage” enables users to identify social protection coverage gaps within a national context and receive tailored good practices as a basis for moving toward broader and more robust coverage.

The Toolbox directly confronts the need to expand coverage and enables users to visually identify gaps at the national level while providing users with useful examples on how to move forward. It offers a unique approach to explore social protection and learn what other countries around the world are doing to provide income support and health services.

Social Protection Toolbox website: http://www.socialprotection-toolbox.org/

 

 

Adoption of five-year road map for the implementation of the Incheon Strategy to ‘Make the Right Real’ for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific (只提供英文版)

March 2014

 

The UNESCAP Working Group on the Asian and Pacific Decade of Persons with Disabilities, 2013-2022 gathered in Incheon, Korea during February 2014 to discuss the strategies and adopt a road map for the implementation of the Incheon Strategy to build a disability-inclusive society in Asia-Pacific.

The Incheon Strategy provides the Asian and Pacific region, and the world, with the first set of regionally agreed disability-inclusive development goals. It will enable the Asian and Pacific region to track progress towards improving the quality of life, and the fulfillment of the rights, of the region’s 650 million persons with disabilities, most of whom live in poverty. It comprises 10 goals, 27 targets and 62 indicators to guide regional and national implementation of the Asian and Pacific Decade of Persons with Disabilities, 2013-2022. And the road map highlights overarching actions that need to be taken at national, subregional and regional levels, to set in motion the timely implementation of the Incheon Strategy.

The Working Group is an advisory body composed of representatives of 15 governments and 15 civil society organizations for, and of, persons with disabilities, to help realize of the rights of the region’s 650 million persons with disabilities.

Incheon Strategy to ‘Make the Right Real’ for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific:
http://www.unescapsdd.org/files/documents/PUB_Incheon-Strategy-EN.pdf

 

 

Asia-Pacific Labour Market Update (只提供英文版)

March 2014

 

??????According to the December 2013 Issue of Labour Market Update by International Labour Organization (ILO), the employment trends varied across the region, reflecting differences in economic developments and labour force pressures. And the natural disaster alarmed the region again how socio-economic vulnerable the region was.

Some of the reviewed countries and regions including Singapore, Macau, Sri Lanka and Malaysia noted notable growth in employment, while some recorded weak employment growth or even fall backward, such as Australia, Japan, Taiwan, Indonesia and Thailand. Although unemployment rates remained comparatively low (around 5% or lower) among the region, the youth were still facing great challenges in finding jobs, with 8 out of 14 reviewed countries and regions recorded 10% or higher in youth unemployment. Job quality for too many workers in developing Asia and the Pacific remained poor, which might due to high proportion of family workers and informally employed workers.

Being the most at-risk region to natural disasters globally, with more than 50% natural disaster globally occurred in the region, the strength and frequency of hazards, socio-economic vulnerabilities, and coping and adaptive capacities of Asia-Pacific region became more crucial in regional socio-economic development. In the global index of risk to natural disasters, 12 of the world’s 20 countries most at-risk are in the Asia-Pacific region, which indicated that the upgrading the institutional capacity of countries to manage the economic and social consequences of natural disasters is critical. ILO suggested that social protection measures, livelihood-centred recovery and preparedness work, employment-focused reconstruction as well as green jobs could help the communities build back better and faster and reduce future hazards.

Asia-Pacific Labour Market Update (December 2013):
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-islamabad/documents/publication/wcms_232657.pdf

 

 

Towards a path of sustainable development 2015 (只提供英文版)

September 2013

 

To mobilize scientific and technical expertise from academia, civil society, and the private sector in support of sustainable development problem solving at local, national, and global scales, UN launched the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) in August 2012 with structured Thematic Groups of global experts that work to identify common solutions and highlight best practices and to provide support on the Post-2015 Development Agenda.

In the latest report “An Action Agenda for Sustainable Development” published in June 2013, SDSN outlined key challenges that should be prioritized in order to achieve sustainable development, suggesting a list of ten possible Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and affiliated targets for post-2015. It proceeded to explain how each of these goals contribute to the four dimensions of sustainable development, with good governance including peace and security being the new dimension alongside the conventional social, economic and environmental elements.

According to the report, the world has changed profoundly since 2000 when the Millennium Declaration and the MDGs were adopted. The coming 15-year period, 2015-2030 would be different from the MDG period ending in 2015 owing to five shifts that had occurred: (1) the feasibility of ending extreme poverty in all its forms; (2) the drastically increased human impact on the physical Earth; (3) rapid technological change; (4) increasing inequality; and (5) a growing diffusion and complexity of governance. Since today’s problems would expand dangerously without an urgent and radical change of course, the world needed an operational sustainable development framework that could mobilize all key actors (national and local governments, civil society, business, science and academia) in every country to move away from the business-as usual trajectory towards a sustainable development path.

To be effective, a shared framework for sustainable development must mobilize the world with priorities and associated goals. The report identifies the following 10 interconnected priority challenges:

  1. End extreme poverty including hunger
  2. Achieve development with planetary boundaries
  3. Ensure effective learning for all children and youth for life and livelihood
  4. Achieve gender equality, social inclusion and human rights for all
  5. Achieve health and well-being at all ages
  6. Improve agriculture systems and raise rural prosperity
  7. Empower inclusive, productive and resilient cities
  8. Curb human–induced climate change and ensure sustainable energy
  9. Secure ecosystem services and biodiversity, and ensure good management of water and other natural resources
  10. Transform governance for sustainable development

SDSN indicated that these 10 sustainable development challenges must be addressed at global, regional, national, and local scales. They might form a plausible basis for framing the SDGs to trigger practical solutions that governments, businesses, and civil society could pursue with high priority.
To know more about SDSN: http://www.sustainabledevelopment2015.org/

 

 

Protecting the rights of older persons (只提供英文版)

September 2013

 

Population ageing is one of the issues that has not been addressed in the framework of the Millennium Development Goals despite its undeniable importance and wide-ranging socio-economic consequences. The Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG) on Ageing has been established since 2011 to strengthen the protection of human rights of older persons by considering existing international frameworks and identifying possible gaps and how best to address them, including by considering, as appropriate, the feasibility of further instruments and measures.

During the 4th session of OEWG took place during August 2013, Member States and NGOs actively discussed on how to promote and protect human rights and dignity of older persons through the existing and new programmes, measures and international legal instruments. Although the meeting did not achieve any breakthroughs regarding the key issue on the table—what new legal instruments, if any, were needed in a contemporary world to protect older persons. But the discussions were quite illuminating. There was consensus amongst Member States of the shortcomings to the enjoyment of human rights by older persons, as well as broad agreement on the overall situation analysis of human rights of older persons and the urgent need for improvement. There was also agreement about the urgent need to address these issues, as ageing has become a global phenomenon, manifested both in developed and developing countries.

The 4th session of OEWG also provided a platform with interactive dialogue with civil society organizations present at the meeting, although larger numbers of representatives from European and North American organizations in comparison to an under-representation of representatives from other regions were noted.

Details of the 4th session of OEWG:
http://social.un.org/ageing-working-group/fourthsession.shtml

 

 

Number of international migrants rises above 232 million (只提供英文版)

September 2013

 

According to the new figures from the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA), more people than ever were living abroad with 232 million people, or 3.2% of the world’s population, lived abroad worldwide, compared with 175 million in 2000 and 154 million in 1990.

Europe and Asia host nearly two-thirds of all international migrants worldwide. Europe remains the most popular destination region with 72 million international migrants in 2013, compared to 71 million in Asia. Within Europe, Germany and France hosts the largest immigrant communities due to work migration and geographic routes with North Africa. Most international migrants originated in developing country but in recent years they had been settling in almost equal number in developed and developing regions. In addition, there was a shift since 2000 with South-North and South-South migration at about 82 million international migrants.

Asia saw the largest increase of international migrants over the past decade, adding some 20 million migrants in 13 years. This growth was mainly fuelled by the increasing demand for foreign labour in the oil-producing countries of Western Asia and in South-Eastern Asian countries with rapidly growing economies, such as Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. And the United States remained the most popular destination. The world’s largest corridor of international migration remained between the United States and Mexico.

The findings also showed that 74 per cent of international migrants were of working age, between 20 and 64 years of age, and that were about evenly spread between genders, with women accounting for 48 per cent of all international migrants.

 

 

Forward-Looking Macroeconomic Policies for Inclusive and Sustainable Development (只提供英文版)

September 2013

 

In the “Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2013”, UNESCAP argued that macroeconomic policies, especially fiscal policies, could and should play an instrumental role in achieving the enhancement of the resilience of peoples’ livelihoods and the inclusiveness of the development process in the Asia-Pacific Region.

Poverty and income inequality, economic insecurity, as well as food security were indicated as major problems in the Asia-Pacific Region in the Survey. Nowadays, there were still more than 800 million poor struggling to survive on an income of less than USD$1.25-a-day, which represented nearly two-thirds of the world’s poor. Rapid growth in income had been accompanied by increases in income inequality in many countries in the region. More than 1 billion workers in the region were in vulnerable employment that undermined workers’ fundamental rights. An estimated 563 million people undernourished. Economic insecurity and vulnerability were exacerbated by increasingly damaging natural disasters, which many believe were related to climate change and environmental degradation.

According to the Survey, one in six young people in the labour force remained unemployed. In Hong Kong, the official youth unemployment rate reached 16.6% in August 2011, yet it could be twice as high if it counted the inactive youth. Young people continued to face considerable disadvantages in terms of securing decent employment. Limited job openings in the formal sector and rapid structural transformation of labour market are considered as the main constraint to absorb young workers into the labour force.

Fostering inclusive and sustainable development would require greater efforts to restructure a development-oriented investment. The Survey initiated a policy package requirement on public investment to 10 Asia-Pacific countries including Bangladesh, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Russia, Thailand and Turkey with six elements, namely (i) a job guarantee programme, (ii) a universal, non-contributory pension system, (iii) benefits to all persons with disabilities, (iv) increasing share of health expenditures of GDP, (v) universal enrolment to primary and secondary education as well as (vi) energy access to all. The analysis found that most countries could finance such a package without jeopardizing macroeconomic stability, although overall investment requirements vary across countries.

To know more about “Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2013”: http://www.unescap.org/pdd/publications/survey2013/index.asp

 

 

Asia-Pacific on the road to middle-class employment (只提供英文版)

September 2013

 

Uncertainty brings in a lot of social issues that should be tackled, but left undone. The recent ILO working paper “Economic class and labour market inclusion: Poor and middle class workers in developing Asia and the Pacific” concluded that despite strong economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region over the past two decades, millions are still living under or just above the poverty line.

In the ILO working paper, projections indicated continuous rapid growth in Asia’s middle class, which could grow to one-half of the total workforce in the region by 2017. This was based on a projected acceleration in middle class employment growth in East Asia. The overall regional projection for Asia and the Pacific was heavily dependent upon the growth and employment performance in China, and the shares of poor and near poor workers are expected to decline in the region as a whole. However, the vast majority of workers in South Asia are projected to remain either poor or near poor in 2017. Unemployment and income inequality have always occupy the centre of debate. Working poor emerged because of the lack of access to higher education, in which preventing them from getting middle class job to improve their livelihood.

The difference between middle class workers and the working poor was also reflected in the quality of jobs they have and the industries they work in. Agriculture was found as the predominant employer of most poor workers, while higher value-added industry and services sector provided jobs for more middle class workers. The problem of youth unemployment in some regions was alarmingly serious. Gender disparities in terms of job quality were also persisting in Asia-Pacific, with women facing greater challenges than men, regardless of economic class. Fortunately, a trend also highlighted the potential impact of expanding middle class employment opportunities on reducing gender discrimination in society and the labour market.

 

ILO Convention on Decent Work for Domestic Workers to come into force

(只提供英文版)

October 2012

 

Having been ratified by Uruguay and the Philippines, ILO Convention 189 “Domestic Workers Convention”, which promote and protects decent work for all domestic workers in worldwide to enjoy the same protections as any other workers, will come into effect in twelve months’ time.

The new international treaty provides for special measures for tens of millions of domestic workers who care for families and households to ensure them having the same basic labour rights as other workers, such as reasonable working hour, weekly rest of at least 24 consecutive hours, limit on in-kind payment, clear information on terms and conditions of employment, respect for fundamental principles and rights at work, including freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining, etc.

 

 

UN calls on global citizens to campaign for a better world on social media

(只提供英文版)

September 2012

 

The United Nations Foundation has launched a new and exciting worldwide campaign called the Global Good Challenge (GGC) in September 2012, which promotes a new way for people to use technology and social media for social good with rewards for people taking action and engaging their networks on global issues.

The Global Good Challenge encourages individuals to use technology and social media to take action to support the United Nations’ work to address some of the world’s toughest challenges. From September through mid-November global citizens can sign up for the Global Good Challenge from the website or Facebook, and take specific actions such as watching videos, taking quizzes, voting on opinion question,? ?and share their actions and educational and inspirational posts through different social media such as Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest and email. In return, participants will earn points that can be used to win prizes in the incentive scheme, and be in with a chance to win some top prizes, e.g. backstages pass in pop concert, tickets in award ceremony and chances to meet celebrities, etc.

GGC website: http://www.unf.org/good

Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/unitednationsfoundation

 

 

Social Protection Inter-Agency Cooperation Board

(只提供英文版)

July 2012

 

The first Social Protection Inter-Agency Cooperation Board meeting took place on 2-3 July 2012 in New York to enhance global coordination and advocacy on social protection issues and to coordinate international cooperation in country demand-driven actions.

The Board is chaired by the ILO and the World Bank and composes of representatives of international organizations and bilateral institutions including IMF, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, UNDP, UNICEF, WHO, WFP, regional development banks, regional economic commissions, other relevant international organizations, bilateral institutions from G20 and non G20 countries working internationally at country level on social protection advocacy, financing and/or technical advice.
The objectives of the Board are:

  1. To promote social protection as a top priority at the global, regional and national development agendas;
  2. To discuss pragmatic approaches in advancing interagency policy coherence;
  3. To enhance coordination and collaboration among international institutions in providing advisory services, especially at country level, when supporting developing countries in improving their social protection systems;
  4. To promote the exchange of knowledge, policy experience, good practices, as well as data and information

The Board will promote global advocacy activities and initiatives and advise on the implementation of joint activities to support knowledge-generation and help meeting country demands for social protections systems.

 

United Nations Social Development Network (UNSDN)

(只提供英文版)

June 2012

 

To provide a global platform for sharing knowledge, experiences and best practices in social development from around the globe to assist the countries in the development of policies and practices, The Division for Social Policy and Development of UN-DESA launched a new web portal project called United Nations Social Development Network (UNSDN) in June 2012 to share knowledge and good practices among social development professionals worldwide on ageing, civil society, cooperatives, disability, employment, family, indigenous peoples, poverty, social integration, technology and youth.

UNSDN will serve as a unique global portal for social development to coordinate, manage, and disseminate information and knowledge produced by the United Nations system in the area of social development, particularly on the three core issues of poverty eradication, employment generation and social integration. It will promote capacity-building through providing platforms for people to find and share information and knowledge with showcase of innovative and successful projects in social development, and promote development of joint work.

The portal can be accessed at: http://www.unsdn.org.

 

The Global Agenda for Social Work and Social Development Commitment to Action

(只提供英文版)

11 April 2012

 

Global Agenda for Social Work and Social Development, initiated by IASSW, ICSW and IFSW in 2010 Joint World Conference, re-stated the important role that the social work profession should play in promoting a humane and just world, and reaffirmed that social work practitioners, educators, and development workers should take stock of past experiences and to articulate a new and crucial vision to engage in the global movement.


The three international organizations committed to focus their effort to implement the Global Agenda and work alongside others who share these commitments in four areas: promoting social and economic equalities, promoting the dignity and worth of peoples, working toward environmental sustainability, and strengthening recognition of the importance of human relationships. An implementation plan would be established with planned programme from 2012-2016 for implementing their Agenda Commitments to mobilize The United Nations and other international agencies, as well as their members to contribute in promoting a new world order with respect for human rights and dignity and strengthening of human relationships

Full text of Agenda Commitment: http://www.scribd.com/doc/83996322/Global-Agenda-2012

Website of the Global Agenda: http://www.globalsocialagenda.org/

Denys Correll: Collaboration and sharing of knowledge to advance leadership in the third sector and public governance (只提供英文版)

9 March 2012

 

In the International Conference on the Third Sector in Greater China: Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects, Mr. Denys Correll, Executive Director of International Council on Social Welfare, discussed why civil society need to strengthen, the importance of national councils and challenges that civil society facing nowadays.

Civil society can respond to the evolving, regressing and changing society and emerging needs by modifying its civic engagement and service delivery or risk become irrelevant. It can take the lead and create services to meet the needs. The changing local and international politics, emerging economies with a rapid expanding middle class, and grabbing for resources among nations continuous place new pressure on civil society, and result in an importance and immediacy of strengthening civil society under the current global development policies, as well as for better standard of living of vulnerable people all over the world through enabling people to claim for their rights, promoting rights-based approaches, shaping development policies and partnerships and overseeing their implementation.

National councils, which are umbrella organizations in social welfare and social development, play a vital role when strengthening civil society. National councils and their member organizations share common value and work collaboratively to influence government policies, budgets and poverty reduction strategies. Strong national councils are powerful agents for enhancing the work of civil society with their strengthened capacity, support from their members, and promoted engagement among the practitioners, the sector, the people and the community.

However, civil society organizations encounter many challenges. In developing countries and emerging economies, collaborations among social organizations have not developed, while in established economies, national councils are observed to become neo-conservative and their influence diminishing under the continuing global financial crisis. The civil society is unprepared for the changes in political ideologies, and cannot benefit from the academic community and researches to meet the changing political environments. Impact of climate change, internal and cross border armed conflicts, the continuing trend toward unfair distribution of global and national resources and development opportunities, as well as achievement to sustainable social and economic environment with addressing the need of global governmental structural reform, endemic corruption and gender balance are also recognized that civil society will confront in the future.

Being the imperative tool to influence and input to government policy and budget for a better world, active, credible and effective national councils of civil society in all countries with good connection between academia are essential in the pathway of strengthening civil society. In this case, Hong Kong has demonstrated an exemplary example. Hong Kong Council of Social Service is a comprehensive and effective national umbrella organization that brings together a wide variety of NGOs to work together to identify and advocate best practice in social welfare development in Hong Kong. The organized civil society and the universities have developed a splendid interrelation between research, policy and practice and promoted an evidence-based culture.

Full speech: http://www.icsw.org/doc/2012-03-09-3rd_Sector_and_public_governance_Conference_HK_Correll_Keynote.pdf

 

United Nations to strengthen outreach in Asia (只提供英文版)

6 January 2012

 

After establishment of for East and North-East Asia in Incheon, Korea in May 2010 and Subregional Office for North and Central Asia in Almaty, Kazakhstan in May 2011, UNESCAP launched the new New Delhi Subregional Office for South and South-West Asia in December 2011.

Through the new Subregional Offices, UNESCAP will further promote subregional cooperation, partnerships and knowledge sharing among the member countries, the private sector, civil society and other development partners for inclusive and environmentally friendly development for all.

UNESCAP’s work on subregional activities for development cover five subregions:

  • The Pacific: Australia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu
  • East and North-East Asia: China, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation
  • North and Central Asia: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (Afghanistan would participate in activities relating to Central Asia as a member of the United Nations Special Programme for the Economies of Central Asia)
  • South and South-West Asia: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Turkey); and
  • South-East Asia: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Viet Nam

 

 

Social Protection Floor Campagin (只提供英文版)

Novemeber 2011

 

The NGO Committee for Social Development at the United Nations has launched a signature campaign in support of the Social Protection Floor (SPF) Initiative to convince national government that the Social Protection Floor is needed and wanted by its citizens and must be included in national development policies.

SPF Initiative is coordinated by The International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) as a joint UN effort to build a global coalition committed to supporting countries in building national social protection floors for their citizens, promotes universal access to essential social transfers and services
SPF is the first level of a comprehensive national social protection system that helps to realize human rights for all through guaranteeing:

  1. Services: Ensuring the availability, continuity, and geographical and financial access to essential services, such as water and sanitation, food and adequate nutrition, health, education, housing, life and asset saving information and other social services.
  2. Transfers: Realizing access by ensuring a basic set of essential social transfers, in ash and in kind, to provide a minimum income and livelihood security for poor and vulnerable populations and to facilitate access to essential services. It includes social transfers (but also information, entitlements and policies) to children, people in active age groups with insufficient income and older persons.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The aim of the Campaign is one million signatures. The signatures will be used as an advocacy tool at national level and at the UN during the Commission on Social Development 2012, Commission on Status of Women 2012 and the International Labour Conference in June 2012.

English:
http://www.gopetition.com/petitions/signature-campaign-social-protection-floor.html
Spanish:
http://www.gopetition.com/petitions/en-apoyo-del-piso-de-protecci%C3%B3n-social.html
French:
http://www.gopetition.com/petitions/appuyer-le-socle-de-protection-sociale.html
Portuguese:
http://www.gopetition.com/petitions/patamar-de-prote%C3%A7%C3%A3o-socialpara-todos-e-todas.html

For more information, please refer to the following website:
NGO Committee on Social Development: www.ngosocdev.net
ILO GESS: http://www.social-protection.org/gimi/gess/ShowTheme.do?tid=1321

 

 

New international standards for domestic workers: Convention on Domestic Workers (只提供英文版)

16 June 2011

 

At the 100th annual Conference of the International Labour Organization (ILO) on 16 June 2011, the Convention on Domestic Workers (2011) was adopted with the accompanying Recommendation, which was a significant set of international standards in improving the working conditions of worldwide domestic workers. According to ILO proceedings, the new Convention would come into force after two countries ratified it.

The new Convention clearly defined domestic work, and set out the universal basic labour rights for the people engaging in domestic work in worldwide as those available to other workers: reasonable hours of work, weekly rest of at least 24 consecutive hours, a limit on in-kind payment, clear information on terms and conditions of employment, as well as respect for fundamental principles and rights at work including freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining. It also provided special measures to protect domestic workers who might be exposed to additional risks relative to their peers and among others because of their young age or nationality or live-in status.

ILO recognized the new instruments as an achievement in motivating decent work of all workers, gender equality, as well as human rights of migrants or members of disadvantaged communities.

Full text of Convention on Domestic Workers (2011) (English)
Full text of Recommendation (English)

 

Launch of ISO 26000 guidance standard on social responsibility  (只提供英文版)

5 November 2010

 

In July, 2009, ICSW reported briefly on the UN conference on the world financial and economic crisis and its impact on development. Here is a bit more – the recommendations. Thanks to Selim Jahan, Director, Poverty Practice, Bureau for Development Policy UNDP and Rob Vos, Director, Development Policy and Analysis Division with UNDESA for this summary.

First, on the global governance system, the following recommendations were made:

  • The global economic governance system needs to develop effective monitoring mechanisms that could flag potential problems.
  • National governments need to be assisted in conducting their assessment of the impact on the livelihood and welfare of different demographic groups.
  • To minimize the impact of the crisis, it is important to reduce dependency on exports. Developing countries urgently need to build their own domestic demand for goods and services by improving livelihoods and raising income, especially for those from the rural areas who are mainly engaged in agriculture.
  • There has been a significant increase in the level of developing countries’ participation in the international financial regulatory bodies such as the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) and the Financial Stability Forum (FSF). However there is still room for improvement in the representation of small and medium countries as well as non-financial stakeholders.

Second, the following challenges have been particularly highlighted:

  • Almost all of the $1.1 trillion promised by the G20 for aid is the form of loans. This would raise potential debt problems in the future.
  • Concerns have been expressed for conditionalities attached to IMF loans. Even though the IMF has claimed changes of its policy, the effect of the policy change still remains to be seen.
  • The current global financial system is not representative enough. It needs not only greater representativeness and legitimacy but also new coordination mechanisms. National self-interests tend to guide policies and hence get in the way of global cooperation and regulation.

Third, the implications of the crisis to the development of Africa and to vulnerable populations around the developing world have been reiterated:

  • The current crisis should not divert attention from core development issues in Africa. Out of the $28.3 billion pledged by rich nations to Sub-Saharan Africa by 2010 at the Gleneagles Summit, only $9.4 billion (less than a third) was actually delivered. The current crisis is expected to further affect the delivery of aid.
  • Low-income commodity-dependent countries should increase their output share of manufacturing in national income through proper industrial policies.
  • Vulnerable groups such as the poor, women, elderly and people with disabilities are among the biggest victims of the crisis. NGOs, grassroots organisations in particular, have played a critical role in attending to the needs of the vulnerable at a community level and in making sure their voices are heard in times of crisis.
  • Links between education, training and work should be revisited. National ministries such as Health, Labour and Education, should work together to tailor education and training to fit labour market conditions and individual needs.

The following link will take you to feedback:  http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/CONF.214/3&Lang=E.
 Commentators noted that developing countries, including those that are ODA-dependent today – would seek to reduce their reliance on North-South relationships. The question for the UN development system is how best to position itself as the axis tilts away from its traditional North-South bearings toward stronger South-South links. For example, the final Outcome Document stated that International Financial Institutions (IFI) programmes should not contain “unwarranted pro-cyclical conditionalities.” Is the UN ready to contest these conditionalities in its partnership with IFIs?

  • Donors were encouraged to meet established ODA targets, but more needs to be done. The UN should continue advocating those including the Gleneagles scenarios. Northern NGOs can exert pressure more effectively on their own governments to meet ODA commitments.
  • Certain issues received relatively less attention. These included the Paris Declaration and green recovery in conjunction with climate change.
  • There continues to be a lack of representation of the poor in the decision making process, leading to unrealistic development premises and inadequate North-South development approaches. For example, it was suggested that a national consultation process that started from local levels especially in rural areas, could lead to more equitable global solutions.

The outcome document includes language on issues raised by developing countries especially for creating their own policy and fiscal space. These provide a basis for follow up that could expand the UN’s role, provided the UN has the capability to engage credibly. There are important references to follow up actions such as an “ad-hoc open-ended working group of the General Assembly” mandated to follow up on the Outcome Document after the UN General Assembly in September 2009. ECOSOC is asked to make further recommendations, and consider the “possible establishment of an ad hoc panel of experts on the world economic crisis and its impact on development”.
Full contributions  can be accessed at the UN conference website: http://www.un.org/ga/econcrisissummit/edis.shtml
.

UN Conference on the World Financial and Economic Crisis   (只提供英文版)

9 October 2009

 

In July, 2009, ICSW reported briefly on the UN conference on the world financial and economic crisis and its impact on development. Here is a bit more – the recommendations. Thanks to Selim Jahan, Director, Poverty Practice, Bureau for Development Policy UNDP and Rob Vos, Director, Development Policy and Analysis Division with UNDESA for this summary.

First, on the global governance system, the following recommendations were made:

  • The global economic governance system needs to develop effective monitoring mechanisms that could flag potential problems.
  • National governments need to be assisted in conducting their assessment of the impact on the livelihood and welfare of different demographic groups.
  • To minimize the impact of the crisis, it is important to reduce dependency on exports. Developing countries urgently need to build their own domestic demand for goods and services by improving livelihoods and raising income, especially for those from the rural areas who are mainly engaged in agriculture.
  • There has been a significant increase in the level of developing countries’ participation in the international financial regulatory bodies such as the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) and the Financial Stability Forum (FSF). However there is still room for improvement in the representation of small and medium countries as well as non-financial stakeholders.

Second, the following challenges have been particularly highlighted:

  • Almost all of the $1.1 trillion promised by the G20 for aid is the form of loans. This would raise potential debt problems in the future.
  • Concerns have been expressed for conditionalities attached to IMF loans. Even though the IMF has claimed changes of its policy, the effect of the policy change still remains to be seen.
  • The current global financial system is not representative enough. It needs not only greater representativeness and legitimacy but also new coordination mechanisms. National self-interests tend to guide policies and hence get in the way of global cooperation and regulation.

Third, the implications of the crisis to the development of Africa and to vulnerable populations around the developing world have been reiterated:

  • The current crisis should not divert attention from core development issues in Africa. Out of the $28.3 billion pledged by rich nations to Sub-Saharan Africa by 2010 at the Gleneagles Summit, only $9.4 billion (less than a third) was actually delivered. The current crisis is expected to further affect the delivery of aid.
  • Low-income commodity-dependent countries should increase their output share of manufacturing in national income through proper industrial policies.
  • Vulnerable groups such as the poor, women, elderly and people with disabilities are among the biggest victims of the crisis. NGOs, grassroots organisations in particular, have played a critical role in attending to the needs of the vulnerable at a community level and in making sure their voices are heard in times of crisis.
  • Links between education, training and work should be revisited. National ministries such as Health, Labour and Education, should work together to tailor education and training to fit labour market conditions and individual needs.

The following link will take you to feedback:  http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/CONF.214/3&Lang=E.
 Commentators noted that developing countries, including those that are ODA-dependent today – would seek to reduce their reliance on North-South relationships. The question for the UN development system is how best to position itself as the axis tilts away from its traditional North-South bearings toward stronger South-South links. For example, the final Outcome Document stated that International Financial Institutions (IFI) programmes should not contain “unwarranted pro-cyclical conditionalities.” Is the UN ready to contest these conditionalities in its partnership with IFIs?

  • Donors were encouraged to meet established ODA targets, but more needs to be done. The UN should continue advocating those including the Gleneagles scenarios. Northern NGOs can exert pressure more effectively on their own governments to meet ODA commitments.
  • Certain issues received relatively less attention. These included the Paris Declaration and green recovery in conjunction with climate change.
  • There continues to be a lack of representation of the poor in the decision making process, leading to unrealistic development premises and inadequate North-South development approaches. For example, it was suggested that a national consultation process that started from local levels especially in rural areas, could lead to more equitable global solutions.

The outcome document includes language on issues raised by developing countries especially for creating their own policy and fiscal space. These provide a basis for follow up that could expand the UN’s role, provided the UN has the capability to engage credibly. There are important references to follow up actions such as an “ad-hoc open-ended working group of the General Assembly” mandated to follow up on the Outcome Document after the UN General Assembly in September 2009. ECOSOC is asked to make further recommendations, and consider the “possible establishment of an ad hoc panel of experts on the world economic crisis and its impact on development”.
Full contributions  can be accessed at the UN conference website: http://www.un.org/ga/econcrisissummit/edis.shtml
.

 
(只提供英文版)

Economic meltdown – this crisis has a woman’s face

18 February 2009

 
By Amelita King Dejardin. Gender expert, International Labour Organization

 

The current economic crisis is unravelling before us faster than even the most pessimistic of experts predicted just a few months ago.


The effects are already trickling down to ordinary working people. In Asia Pacific the International Labour Organization has projected that as many as 27 million more people could become unemployed this year. 140 million others in the region’s developing economies could be forced into extreme poverty.


The numbers are staggering and without a doubt, everyone will be touched by this crisis. Yet what is so far lacking from many of the debates on how countries should respond is a realization that this crisis has a gender bias. Here in Asia working women will be affected more severely, and differently, from their male counterparts.


For policy makers, failure to take into account this gender dimension, especially at the lower end of the socio-economic scale, could be a critical miscalculation, worsening the working and living conditions of millions, deepening economic and social inequalities, and wiping out a generation of hard-won gains in pay equity and workplace equality.


Why are women affected differently? One reason is that women workers are concentrated in labour-intensive export industries that feed into global supply chains. In contrast, male workers tend to be distributed across a wider range of economic sectors. Women are also concentrated in the lower levels of these global supply chains, in casual, temporary, sub-contracted and informal employment, where work is insecure, wages low, working conditions poor, and workers least likely to be protected by conventional social insurance systems. It follows that shrinking global demand for clothes, textiles and electronics (as well as for related business services like hotels and restaurants) means that women will be the first to lose their jobs.


Asia’s experience during the 1997 economic crisis provides evidence to back this projection. In Thailand 95 per cent of those laid off from the garment sector were women, in the toys sector is was 88 per cent. In Korea 86 per cent of those who lost their financial services and banking jobs were female.


The consequence of losing a job also affects women differently, and more severely. Research shows that, the poorer the family the more important the woman’s earnings are to the family’s subsistence, children’s health and education. And because women workers in Thailand, the Philippines and Viet Nam – among other countries – are concentrated in lower paid jobs they tend to save less; so a small pay cut or price rise can severely damage them and their dependents.


The region’s experience in 1997 supports this concern; a survey in the Philippines found that when a male worker lost his job 65 per cent of households reported a fall in income, but when a woman worker was retrenched 94 per cent of households had less money. More households of retrenched women workers cut back on their meals than those where men had lost work.


Poorer households also rely more on unpaid care work (for children, the elderly, or sick family members) which is almost always provided by women. So in tough times women tend to be stretched more between their conflicting responsibilities.


Since the 1990’s the Governments of many Asian countries have strengthened their social protection schemes. This is a welcome move since a social floor is a vital tool in fighting poverty (and designing a social floor that meets women’s needs is one of the themes of the current ILO Global Gender Campaign). However, in many countries women do not get equal access to social protection.


In some cases this is because of the non-standard, low wage and informal economy jobs they have, which are less likely to come with such social benefits. In others it is because policy makers assume women can rely on men, or because benefits are directly linked to keeping your job – for example, most maternity protection systems in Asia are paid solely by employers.


Of course, this is not a simple black and white issue. In some areas or sectors men will bear the brunt. For example, demand for female workers could rise as regular workers are replaced by casuals. Among migrant workers in developed economies, better-educated, skilled, women who work as nurses, doctors or in other specialist health care jobs, or as domestic workers, are less likely to be laid off than their male migrant worker counterparts – who are mostly in construction, manufacturing and agriculture.


It is therefore critical that when governments, employers and workers organizations sit down to discuss policies to combat the social and economic effects of the crisis, they do so from the perspective of women as well as men.


For example, public infrastructure and investment programmes are common components of national crisis response packages. However, the bulk of jobs created by these programmes could easily go to men because construction, engineering and technical jobs are dominated by and seen as more suitable for men. This is what we saw in 1997.


Not only should efforts be made to ensure that these jobs are open to women, but the concept of what are public works should be expanded, to incorporate social services, health care, education, child and youth development.


Recruitment strategies must be created to reach women. Child care facilities must be included. Initiatives specially targeting unemployed women are needed. Economic and fiscal stimulus packages must include support for microfinance – which has been extremely effective in helping women start small businesses.


When it comes to the social aspect of policy responses, basic health care, maternity, and education must be included.


Finally, special attention is needed to ensure that women’s own views and opinions are heard. In 1997 women were not properly included in the social dialogue because – even in businesses that employed mostly women – the leadership of workers’ and employers’ organizations was dominated by men.


If crisis response packages are to be effective they must take these gender differences into account. This week brings International Women’s Day (March 8th), a regular and natural opportunity to focus on the situation of women in this region. We should mark the day with a commitment not to repeat the mistakes of 1997, by ensuring that crisis response measures reach all those who need help, equally.


Amelita King Dejardin is a senior technical adviser in the Policy Integration and Statistics Department of the International Labour Office. She is the author of a paper “Asia in the Global Economic Crisis: Impacts and Responses from a Gender Perspective”, which was presented to a high level conference on policy responses to the crisis in Asia and the Pacific, held in Manila in February.


http://www.ilo.org/global/About_the_ILO/Media_and_public_information/Press_releases/lang--en/WCMS_104381/index.htm

 

 

社會發展


Global Agenda on Social Development: Employment and Decent Work for All

“Employment and Decent Work” is actually not a new agenda globally, but it had not gained enough attention in the globe until 2007, when the Commission for Social Development, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations started the year with 45th Session Picking it up as the priority theme.

Different form the previous approach, the Commission has adopted a new 2-year cycle approach to tackle the theme on employment and decent work. The year of 2007-2008 was the first year in which best practices from governments and NGOs were gathered. In the year of 2008-2009, the review area would be “Promoting full employment and decent work for all”, taking into account its interrelationship with poverty eradication and social integration. This year focuses on macroeconomic policies, enterprise and rural development, education, training and skills, and social protection, as well as standards and regulatory policies.

社會發展


Issues

World Trends

Raising unemployment

From 1995 to 2005:

No. of workers rose by 16.3%
BUT unemployment rate rose from 6% to 6.3%, no. of unemployed
  workers rose by 21.9%
  (In the context of that global economic output grew at the rate of
3.8% per annum)
5 out of 10 women worldwide are not in the labour force
Youth are more than 3 times as likely to be unemployed than adults

Employment in the informal sector and growth of self-employment

In agricultural sector, 1/2 to 3/4 of employment in developing countries
Informal employment accounts for more than 50% in non-agricultural
  sector in many regions.
In OECD countries, informal economy accounts for 18% of gross
  national income

Working poor

From 1995 to 2005:

1.4 billion workers (of over 3 billion world work force) earned less than
  2 dollars a day
0.485 billion workers earned less than 1 dollar a day

Increase in occupational hazards but lack of adequate protections

2.2 million deaths every year
160 million fall ill from work-related causes

Regional imbalance

High fertility in developing countries and low in developed nations.
84% labour force in developing world (China 26%, India 14.8%)
Africa and South Asia have the highest unemployment rate and on
  an increase from 1995 to 2005

Sectoral imbalance

Agriculture provides employment and jobs in agriculture are on a decrease
Service sector employment grows from 34.5% in 1995 to 38.9% in 2005
In developed economies, no. of employment in service sector rose
  from 66.1% to 71.4%

Informal workers

50% -70% of workers in developing countries work in informal economy,
  most are in some form of “self-employment”.
84% labour force in developing world (China 26%, India 14.8%)
Africa and South Asia have the highest unemployment rate and on an
  increase from 1995 to 2005
The percentage of informal workers in non-agricultural employment
  grew from 40% in 1980 to more than half of urban employment in 2007

Social Security

80% of the World’s populations with no access to any form of
  social protection
 
 
345,600